The characters, places, events depicted in this articulate creation are purely fictional which is based on non fictional ideas & incidences. Any factual resemblance & relation, if found, to any of such characters, places, events has to be purely coincidental. Also due care has been taken while conceptualizing the connotations, nomenclatures & terminologies dealt while critically dissecting the insect of loneliness.
The pictorial representation, several content, special appearance of dan-board or otherwise depicted throughout the theme based of this articulate creation are for exemplary purpose & do not resemble any intentional connection to express support or show the brighter side of the other side of personality disorders nor any attempt of spreading the word creating awareness or some ‘issued in public interest’ kindda stuff.
Having gone through more than couple of dozen thesis, informative sources & having further scrolled down several countless links, googled & wikied innumerous terms in context of the article, it has been far from mere writing some abstract stuff. Instead it was just an impulsive attempt to explore more into the world of loneliness while rewinding of nostalgic moments of being much lonely & alone.
At the very spurring point, being lone, being lonely, & being alone; physically, mentally, consciously or otherwise; lies the point of discussion & theme of this yet another articulate creation. For some it may be bit stereotype, fruitless research or philosophical & out of the world track; having removed citations, references etc. But still, moving back to the theme, without wasting much of the words in prelude & time to catch up the nerves of this article.
There may not be a single word, evolving from the medical terms; to coin down the state of being lonely or even to stay aloof like some fool. Neither attempting to spotlight into the myths & facts revolving around loneliness; rather just exploring the other side by confronting behind the curtains. But just because the words are sprouting out; filtering & refining to intensify the intensity.
By & large, loneliness is a complex & usually unpleasant feeling in which a person feels a strong sense of emptiness & solitude. The causes of loneliness are varied, but it can be affected by social, mental, emotional, spiritual & countless factors. In contrast, the term alone may imply to solitude, a state of seclusion or isolation.
Shyness is most likely to occur during unfamiliar situations, though in severe cases it may hinder an individual in one’s most familiar situations & relationships as well. Shy people avoid the objects of their apprehension in order to keep from feeling uncomfortable & inept; thus, the situations remain unfamiliar & the shyness perpetuates itself. Shyness may fade with time; e.g., a child who is shy towards strangers may eventually lose this trait when older & become more socially skillful.
In some cases, though, it may become an integrated, lifelong character trait. Humans experience shyness to different degrees & in different areas.
For example, an actor may be loud & bold on stage, but shy in an interview. In addition, shyness may manifest when one is in the company of certain people & completely disappear when with others— one may be outperforming with friends & family, but experience love-shyness toward potential partners, even if strangers are generally not an obstacle. A hermit is a person who lives, to some degree, in seclusion from society.
The condition of true shyness may simply involve the discomfort of difficulty in knowing what to say in social situations, or may include crippling physical manifestations of uneasiness. Shyness usually involves a combination of both symptoms, & may be quite devastating for the sufferer, in many cases leading them to feel that they are boring, or exhibit bizarre behavior in an attempt to create interest, alienating them further. Behavioral traits in social situations such as smiling, easily producing suitable conversational topics, assuming a relaxed posture & making good eye contact, may not be second nature for a shy person. Such people might only affect such traits by great difficulty, or they may even be impossible to express.
Those who are shy are actually perceived more negatively because of the way they act towards others. Shy individuals are often distant during conversations, which may cause others to create poor impressions of them, simply adding to their shyness in social situations. Other times people who are not shy may be too up-front, aggressive, or critical towards shy people in an attempt “to get them out of their shell.” This may actually make a shy person feel worse, as it can draw attention to them (making them more self-conscious & uncomfortable) or cause them to think there is something very wrong with themselves. The result is that shy person could become even shyer in social situations.
The term shyness may be implemented as a lay blanket-term for a family of related & partially overlapping afflictions, including timidity, bashfulness & diffidence (reluctance in asserting oneself), apprehension & anticipation (general fear of potential interaction), or intimidation (relating to the object of fear rather than one’s low confidence). Apparent shyness, as perceived by others, may simply be the manifestation of reservation or introversion, character traits which cause an individual to voluntarily avoid excessive social contact or be terse in communication, but are not motivated or accompanied by discomfort, apprehension, or lack of confidence.
Conversely, shy people may fear such situations & feel that they “should” avoid them. Shy people tend to perceive their own shyness as a negative trait, & many people are uneasy with shyness in others, especially in cultures which value individuality & taking charge. This generally poor reception of shyness may be misinterpreted by the suffering individual as aversion related to one’s personality, rather than simply to one’s shyness. Both conditions can lead to a compounding of a shy individual’s low self-confidence.
In cultures that value outspokenness & overt confidence, shyness can be perceived as weakness. To an unsympathetic observer, a shy individual may be mistaken as cold, distant, arrogant or aloof, which can be frustrating for the shy individual. However, in other cultures, shy people may be perceived as being thoughtful, intelligent, as being good listeners, & as being more likely to think before they speak. Furthermore, boldness, the opposite of shyness, may cause its own problems, such as impertinence or inappropriate behavior.
Being shy can have its advantages as well, because shy people “have a tendency toward self-criticism, they are often high achievers, & not just in solitary activities like research & writing. Perhaps even more than the drive toward independent achievement, shy people long to make connections to others, often through altruistic behavior. Excessive shyness, embarrassment, self-consciousness & timidity, social-phobia & lack of self-confidence are also components of erethism.
Solitude is a state of seclusion or isolation, i.e., lack of contact with people. It may stem from bad relationships, deliberate choice, infectious disease, mental disorders, neurological disorders or circumstances of employment or situation. Short-term solitude is often valued as a time when one may work, think or rest without being disturbed. It may be desired for the sake of privacy. A distinction has been made between solitude & loneliness. In this sense solitude is positive
The initial causes of shyness vary. Scientists have located some genetic data that supports the hypothesis that shyness is at least partially genetic. However, there is also evidence that the environment in which a person is raised can affect one’s shyness. This includes child abuse, particularly emotional abuse such as ridicule. Shyness can originate after a person has experienced a physical anxiety reaction; at other times, shyness seems to develop first & then later causes physical symptoms of anxiety. Shyness differs from social anxiety, which is a broader, often depression-related psychological condition including the experience of fear, apprehension or worrying about being evaluated by others in social situations to the extent of inducing panic.
Genetics & Heredity
It has been suggested that shyness & social phobia (the distinction between the two is becoming ever more blurred) are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavioral genetics is the study of shyness is complicated by the number of genes involved in, & the confusion in defining, the phenotype. Naming the phenotype – & translation of terms between genetics & psychology — also causes problems. The prevalence of shyness in some children can be linked to day length during pregnancy, particularly during the midpoint of prenatal development
Shyness as a psychiatric illness made its debut as “social phobia” in DSM-III in 1980, but was then described as rare. By 1994, however, when DSM-IV was published, it had become “social anxiety disorder” & was now said to be extremely common. “Shyness is not a disability or disease to be ‘overcome’. It is simply the way we are. & in our own quiet way, we are secretly proud of it.”
Shyness is often analyzed in the context of being a social dysfunction, & is frequently contemplated as a personality disorder or mental health issue. To examine the role that shyness might play in matters of social etiquette & achieving group-oriented goals. “Shyness is one of the emotions that may serve as behavioral regulators of social relationships in collectivistic cultures. For example, social shyness is evaluated more positively in a collectivistic society, but negatively evaluated in an individualistic society.”
Social phobia is distinguished by a fear of public humiliation or embarrassment. It is one of several phobia disorders, which are all typified by excessive, specific, & consistent fear & avoidance of an object, activity, or situation. People with social phobia may avoid doing activities in public such as eating or speaking, as well as using public bathrooms. Ultimately, someone with social phobia fear that people they do not know may judge them, which would cause them to have anxiety.
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. The terms introversion & extraversion were first popularized by Carl Jung, although both the popular understanding & psychological usage differ from the original intent. Extraversion tends to be manifested in outgoing, talkative, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved, quiet, shy behavior.
A loner is a person who avoids or does not actively seek human interaction or prefers to be alone. There are many reasons for solitude, intentional or otherwise, & “loner” does not imply a specific cause. Intentional reasons include spiritual & religious considerations or personal philosophies. Unintentional reasons involve being highly sensitive, having more extreme forms of shyness, or various mental disorders. The modern term “loner” can be used with a negative connotation in the belief that human beings are social creatures & those that do not participate are deviant.
Introversion is “the state of or tendency toward being wholly or predominantly concerned with & interested in one’s own mental life”. Some have characterized introverts as people whose energy tends to expand through reflection & dwindle during interaction.
The common modern perception is that introverts tend to be more reserved & less outspoken in groups. The archetypal artist, writer, sculptor, engineer, composer & inventor are all highly introverted. An introvert is likely to enjoy time spent alone & find less reward in time spent with large groups of people, though one may enjoy interactions with close friends.
Trust is usually an issue of significance: a virtue of utmost importance to an introvert choosing a worthy companion. They prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time & like to observe situations before they participate, especially observed in developing children & adolescents. They are more analytical before speaking. Introverts are easily overwhelmed by too much stimulation from social gatherings; introversion has even been defined by some in terms of a preference for a quiet, more minimally stimulating environment.
Introversion is not seen as being identical to shy or to being a social outcast. Introverts prefer solitary activities over social ones, whereas shy people (who may be extroverts at heart) avoid social encounters out of fear, & the social outcast has little choice in the matter of one’s solitude.
Although many people view being introverted or extroverted as a question with only two possible answers, most contemporary trait theories measure levels of extraversion-introversion as part of a single, continuous dimension of personality. Ambiversion is a term used to describe people who fall more or less directly in the middle & exhibit tendencies of both groups. An ambivert is normally comfortable with groups & enjoys social interaction, but also relishes time alone & away from the crowd.
It is also found that introverts have more blood flow in the frontal lobes of their brain & the anterior or frontal thalamus, which are areas dealing with internal processing, such as planning & problem solving. Extroverts have more blood flow in the anterior cingulate gyrus & temporal lobes which are involved in sensory & emotional experience.
Extraverts & introverts have a variety of behavioral differences. Extraverts tend to wear more decorative clothing, whereas introverts prefer practical, comfortable clothes. Extraverts are likely to prefer more upbeat, conventional, & energetic music than introverts. Personality also influences how people arrange their work areas. In general, extraverts decorate their offices more, keep their doors open, keep extra chairs nearby. These are attempts to invite co-workers & encourage interaction. Introverts, in contrast, decorate less & tend to arrange their workspace to discourage social interaction.
Although extraverts & introverts have real personality & behavior differences, it is important to avoid stereotyping by personality. Humans are complex & unique, & because extraversion varies along a continuum, they may have a mixture of both orientations. A person who acts introverted in one scenario may act extraverted in another, & people can learn to act “against type” in certain situations. Also when someone’s primary function is extraverted, his secondary function is always introverted (& vice versa)
Acknowledging that introversion & extraversion are normal variants of behavior can help in self-acceptance & understanding of others. For example, an extravert can accept one’s introverted partner’s need for space, while an introvert can acknowledge one’s extraverted partner’s need for social interaction. The instrumental view proposes that personality traits give rise to conditions & actions, which have affective consequences, & thus generate individual differences in emotionality
The core element of extraversion is a tendency to behave in ways that attract, hold, & enjoy social attention, & not reward sensitivity. One of the fundamental qualities of social attention is its potential of being rewarding. Therefore, if a person shows positive emotions of enthusiasm, energy, & excitement, that person is seen favorably by others & gains others’ attention. Temperamental view is based on the notion that there is a direct link between people’s personality traits & their sensitivity to positive & negative affects
Sufferers need not be physically alone, but believe that they are being ignored, threatened by intruders, & so on. It is sometimes associated with self-hatred. Autophobia may be a symptom of other psychological disorders or it may predispose a person to developing other psychological disorders.
The alternative five model of personality is based on the structure of human personality traits is best explained by five broad factors called Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS), Neuroticism–Anxiety (N-Anx), Aggression–Hostility (Agg-Host), Sociability (Sy), & Activity (Act).
Social anxiety is the feeling of discomfort or fear when in social interactions involving a concern about being judged or evaluated by others. It is typically characterized by an intense, ego-driven fear of what others are thinking about them (specifically fear of embarrassment, criticism, rejection, etc.), which results in the individual feeling insecure, & that they are not good enough for other people, resulting in intense fear & anxiety in social situations, & the assumption that peers will automatically reject them in social situations.
The difference between social anxiety & normal apprehension of social situations is that social anxiety involves an intense feeling of fear in social situations & especially situations that are unfamiliar or in which one will be watched or evaluated by others. The feeling of fear is so great that in these types of situations one may be so worried that he or she feels anxious just thinking about them & will go to great lengths to avoid them.
Developmental social anxiety occurs early in childhood as a normal part of the development of social functioning, & is a stage that most children grow out of, but it may persist or resurface & grow into chronic social anxiety. People vary in how often they experience social anxiety & in which kinds of situations. Overcoming social anxiety depends on the person & the situation.
In some cases it can be relatively easy—just a matter of time for many individuals—yet for some people social anxiety can become a very difficult, painful & even disabling problem that is chronic in nature. Social anxiety can be related to shyness or anxiety disorders or other emotional or temperamental factors & the causes may vary depending on the individual. Recovery from chronic social anxiety is possible in many cases, but usually only with some kind of therapy or sustained self-help or support group work.
A psychopathological (chronic & disabling) form of social anxiety is called social phobia or social anxiety disorder, & is a chronic problem that can result in a reduced quality of life. Overcoming social anxiety of this type can be very difficult without getting assistance from therapists, psychologists or support groups. Social anxiety can also be self-integrated & persistent for people who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder, which can also make the social anxiety harder to overcome, especially if ignored
Social anxiety first occurs in infancy & is said to be a normal & necessary emotion for effective social functioning & developmental growth. Cognitive advances & increased pressures in late childhood & early adolescence result in repeated social anxiety. Adolescents have identified their most common anxieties as focused on relationships with peers to whom they are attracted, peer rejection, public speaking, blushing, self-consciousness, & past behavior. Most adolescents progress through their fears & meet the developmental demands placed on them.
Some students have such severe cases of social anxiety that they are too afraid to speak or interact with other students or teachers. Part of social anxiety is fear of being criticized by others, & in children social anxiety causes extreme distress over everyday activities such as playing with other kids, reading in class, or speaking to adults. On the other hand some children with social anxiety will act out because of their fear which makes it much harder to diagnose.
Some cases have been reported where the social anxiety is so bad that it leads to physical illness. The problem with identifying social anxiety disorder in children is that it can be difficult to determine the difference between social anxiety & basic shyness. Several forms of social anxiety include shyness, performance anxiety, public speaking anxiety, stage fright, timidness, etc. All of these may also assume clinical forms, i.e., become anxiety disorders.
The essence of social anxiety has been said to be an irrational or unreasonable expectation of negative evaluation by others. Social anxiety disorder may sometimes be symptomatic of an underlying medical disorder, such as hyperthyroidism.
In cognitive models of social anxiety disorder, social phobics experience dread over how they will be presented to others. They may be overly self-conscious, pay high self-attention after the activity, or have high performance standards for themselves. According to the social psychology theory of self-presentation, a sufferer attempts to create a well-mannered impression on others but believes one is unable to do so.
Many times, prior to the potentially anxiety-provoking social situation, sufferers may deliberately go over what could go wrong & how to deal with each unexpected case. After the event, they may have the perception they performed unsatisfactorily. Consequently, they will review anything that may have possibly been abnormal or embarrassing. These thoughts do not just terminate soon after the encounter, but may extend for weeks or longer. Cognitive distortions are a hallmark, & learned about in CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy). Thoughts are often self-defeating & inaccurate.
An example of an instance may be that of an employee presenting to his co-workers. During the presentation, the person may stutter a word, upon which one may worry that other people significantly noticed & think that their perceptions of one as a presenter have been tarnished. This cognitive thought propels further anxiety which compounds with further stuttering, sweating, &, potentially, a panic attack.
Social anxiety disorder is a persistent fear of one or more situations in which the person is exposed to possible scrutiny by others & fears that one may do something or act in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing. It exceeds normal “shyness” as it leads to excessive social avoidance & substantial social or occupational impairment. Feared activities may include almost any type of social interaction, especially small groups, dating, parties, talking to strangers, restaurants, etc. Possible physical symptoms include “mind going blank”, fast heartbeat, difficulty breathing, blushing, stomach ache, nausea etc.
Those who suffer from social anxiety disorder are afraid of being judged by others in society. People who suffer from this disorder may behave a certain way or say something & then feel embarrassed or humiliated after. Therefore, they choose to isolate themselves from society to avoid such situations. They may also feel uncomfortable meeting people they do not know & act distant when they are with large groups of people. In some cases they may show evidence of this disorder by not making eye contact or blushing when someone is talking to them.
Phobias are controlled by escape & avoidance behaviors. For instance, a student may leave the room when talking in front of the class (escape) & refrain from doing verbal presentations because of the previously encountered anxiety attack. Major avoidance behaviors could include an almost pathological/compulsive lying behavior in order to preserve self-image & avoid judgment in front of others. Minor avoidance behaviors are exposed when a person avoids eye contact & crosses arms to avoid recognizable shaking. A fight-or-flight response is then triggered in such events. Preventing these automatic responses is at the core of treatment for social anxiety.
Physiological effects, similar to those in other anxiety disorders, are present in social phobics. In adults, it may be tears as well as experiencing excessive sweating, nausea, difficulty breathing, shaking, & palpitations as a result of the fight-or-flight response. The walk disturbance (where a person is so worried about how they walk that they may lose balance) may appear, especially when passing a group of people. Blushing is commonly exhibited by individuals suffering from social phobia. These visible symptoms further reinforce the anxiety in the presence of others.
Also, life experiences can be another cause of Social anxiety. Negative experiences in life, & the way one handles & reacts to them, can also lead to the development of social anxiety. If one is consistently put in situations that makes one feel inferior or fear the judgment of other people, one can begin to develop negative beliefs about oneself & the world that can cause social anxiety. If negative experiences continue, one may also begin to develop confirmation bias & tend to pay attention only to the actions & events that will reinforce negative beliefs, creating a snowball effect.
For example, a public speaker who is worried about one’s presentation being boring may selectively focus on the few people in an audience who appear bored while completely disregarding the majority of others who are watching with keen interest. As the confirmation bias strengthens pejorative beliefs, one tends to start exhibiting socially anxious behaviors. These behaviors can include anxious sensations, like blushing, or anxious thoughts. After a while, these beliefs lead one to make negative assumptions about social situations.
Social anxiety, & depression, have been linked to one’s explicit & implicit self-esteem. “Explicit self-esteem would reflect deliberate self-evaluate processes whereas implicit self-esteem would reflect simple associations in memory.” Self-evaluative thoughts & actions can come from a person’s self-esteem level. The findings show that one’s explicit self esteem can be the factor leading to social anxiety & depression. The negative judgment that a person has towards themselves can be linked to unstable cognitive behavior that they possess.
Social anxiety causes communication apprehension, which can be thought of as an “internally experienced feeling of discomfort”, in turn causes ineffective communication when in a social or public situation. “Communication apprehension is the level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person”
With social anxiety typically experience embarrassment, distressing panic attacks, & self-consciousness impairing their speech. They show issues in social perspective-taking ability, fewer successful problem solving skills, & use less interpersonal problem solutions. This can bring up problems for people with getting help for their problems of social anxiety. The feelings of embarrassment, inferiority, & shame that social anxiety causes inhibits the ability to seek help.
This disorder can be difficult to diagnose because it is easily confused with general shyness or paranoia in both children & adults. The underlying factors that cause symptoms of social anxiety are also hard to determine. Although, it has been found that some experiences in a person’s life can lead to developing this disorder.
There are no laboratory tests to specifically diagnose social anxiety disorder but, there are a variety of tests that can prove whether the cause is a physical or mental illness that is causing the symptoms. If there is no physical illness found, the patient will be referred to a psychiatrist or psychologist. Psychiatrists & psychologists use specially designed interview questions & assessment tools to evaluate a person with an anxiety disorder.
The doctor bases their diagnosis of social anxiety disorder on reports of the intensity & duration of symptoms, including any problems with functioning caused by the symptoms; if the symptoms & degree of dysfunction are above normal it will indicates that it is social anxiety disorder.
It is not very difficult to treat social anxiety & the treatment needed varies case to case. It is claimed that the most effective treatment available is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), improving symptoms in up to 75 percent of people with social anxiety disorder.
While alcohol initially relieves social phobia, excessive alcohol misuse can worsen social phobia symptoms & can cause panic disorder to develop or worsen during alcohol intoxication & especially during alcohol withdrawal syndrome. This effect is not unique to alcohol but can also occur with long term use of drugs which have a similar mechanism of action to alcohol.
Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness & apathy. Affected individuals may simultaneously demonstrate a rich, elaborate & exclusively internal fantasy world, although this is often more suggestive of schizotypal personality disorder.
SPD is not the same as schizophrenia, although they share such similar characteristics as detachment or blunted affect. There is, however, increased prevalence of the disorder in families with schizophrenia. Withdrawal or detachment from the outer world is a characteristic feature of schizoid (alleged) pathology, but may appear either in “classic” or in “secret” form. When classic, it matches the typical description of the schizoid personality.
The question of whether SPD qualifies as a full personality disorder or simply as an avoidant attachment style is contentious. If what has been known as schizoid personality disorder is no more than an attachment style requiring more distant emotional proximity, then many of the more problematic reactions these individuals show in interpersonal situations may be partly accounted for by the social judgments commonly imposed on those with this style.
SPD & avoidant attachment style are synonyms, which leaves open the question of how researchers might best approach this subject in future diagnostic manuals & therapeutic practice. However, individuals with SPD characteristically do not seek social interactions merely due to lack of interest, while those of the avoidant personality type crave interactions but fear rejection.
Depersonalization as a loss of a sense of identity & individuality. Depersonalization is a dissociative defense, often described by the schizoid patient as “tuning out,” “turning off”, or as the experience of a separation between the observing & the participating ego. It is experienced most profoundly when anxieties seem overwhelming & is a more extreme form of loss of affect: whereas the loss of affect is a more chronic state in schizoid personality disorder, depersonalization is an acute defense against more immediate experiences of overwhelming anxiety or danger
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives the environment as being difficult to escape or get help. These situations include, but are not limited to wide-open spaces, as well as uncontrollable social situations. Agoraphobia is defined within the DSM-IV TR as a subset of panic disorder, involving the fear of incurring a panic attack in those environments.
Agoraphobia is a condition where the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar or where he or she perceives that they have little control. Triggers for this anxiety may include wide open spaces, crowds (social anxiety), or traveling (even short distances). Agoraphobia is often, but not always, compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack & appearing distraught in public. This is also sometimes called ‘social agoraphobia’ which may be a type of social anxiety disorder also sometimes called “social phobia”.
The gender difference may be attributable to several factors: social-cultural traditions that encourage, or permit, the greater expression of avoidant coping strategies by women (including dependent & helpless behaviors); women perhaps being more likely to seek help & therefore be diagnosed; men being more likely to abuse alcohol in reaction to anxiety & be diagnosed as an alcoholic.
Exposure treatment can provide lasting relief to the majority of patients with panic disorder & agoraphobia. Similarly, Systematic desensitization may also be used. Many patients can deal with exposure easier if they are in the company of a friend they can rely on. It is vital that patients remain in the situation until anxiety has abated because if they leave the situation the phobic response will not decrease & it may even rise.
Relaxation techniques are often useful skills for the agoraphobic to develop, as they can be used to stop or prevent symptoms of anxiety & panic.
Anti-depressant medications most commonly used to treat anxiety disorders are mainly in the SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) class. Antidepressants are important because some have antipanic effects. Antidepressants should be used in conjunction with exposure as a form of self-help or with cognitive behaviour therapy. Some evidence shows that a combination of medication & cognitive behaviour therapy is the most effective treatment for agoraphobia.
Eye movement desensitization & reprogramming (EMDR) has been studied as a possible treatment for agoraphobia, with poor results. As such, EMDR is only recommended in cases where cognitive-behavioral approaches have proven ineffective or in cases where agoraphobia has developed following trauma
Selective mutism (SM) is a psychiatric disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations or to specific people. Selective mutism usually co-exists with shyness or social anxiety. With selective mutism are fully capable of speech & understanding language but fail to speak in certain situations, though speech is expected of them. The behaviour may be perceived as shyness or rudeness by others.
A child with selective mutism may be completely silent at school for years but speak quite freely or even excessively at home. There is a hierarchical variation among those suffering from this disorder: some people participate fully in activities & appear social but don’t speak, others will speak only to peers but not to adults, others will speak to adults when asked questions requiring short answers but never to peers, & still others speak to no one & participate in few, if any, activities presented to them. In a severe form known as “progressive mutism”, the disorder progresses until the sufferer no longer speaks to anyone in any situation, even close family members.
Selective mutism is by definition characterized by the following:
Consistent failure to speak in specific social situations (in which there is an expectation for speaking, e.g., at school) despite speaking in other situations. The disturbance interferes with educational or occupational achievement or with social communication. The duration of the disturbance is at least 1 month (not limited to the first month of school). The failure to speak is not due to a lack of knowledge of, or comfort with, the spoken language required in the social situation. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a communication disorder (e.g., stuttering) & does not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder.
Selective mutism can be caused by shyness &/or social anxiety in some people. Some shy or socially anxious people feel uncomfortable talking to certain people. Most children with selective mutism are believed to have an inherited predisposition to anxiety. This area receives indications of possible threats & sets off the fight-or-flight response.
Some children with selective mutism may have sensory integration dysfunction (trouble processing some sensory information). This would cause anxiety & a sense of being overwhelmed in unfamiliar situations, which may cause the child to “shut down” & not be able to speak (something that some autistic people also experience). Many children with SM have some auditory processing difficulties.
Selective mutism tends to be self-reinforcing. Those around such a person may eventually expect him or her not to speak & therefore stop attempting to initiate verbal contact with the sufferer. Alternately, they may pressure the child to talk, making him or her have even higher anxiety levels in situations where speech is expected. Because of these problems, a change of environment (such as changing schools) may make a difference, & treatment in teenage or adult years can be more difficult because the sufferer has become accustomed to being mute.
The exact treatment depends on the sufferer’s age, other mental illnesses one may have, & a number of other factors. For instance, stimulus fading is typically used with younger children, because older children & teenagers recognize the situation as an attempt to make them speak, & older sufferers & people with depression are more likely to need medication.
The subject is brought into a controlled environment with someone with whom they are at ease & can communicate. Gradually, another person is introduced into the situation. One example of stimulus fading is the sliding-in technique, where a new person is slowly brought into the talking group. This can take a long time for the first one or two faded-in people but may become faster as the sufferer gets more comfortable with the technique.
An example of this would be a child playing a board game with a family member in his/her classroom at school. Gradually, the teacher is brought in to play as well. When the child adjusts to one’s presence, then a peer is brought in to be a part of the game. Each person is only brought in if the child continues to engage verbally & positively.
The subject communicates indirectly with a person one is afraid to speak to through such means as email, instant messaging (text, audio, &/or video), online chat, voice or video recordings, & speaking or whispering to an intermediary in the presence of the target person. This can make the subject more comfortable with the idea of communicating with this person.
The subject is slowly encouraged to speak. One is reinforced first for interacting nonverbally, then for saying certain sounds (such as the sound that each letter of the alphabet makes) rather than words, then for whispering, & finally saying a word or more.
Spacing is important to integrate, especially with self-modeling. Repeated & spaced out use of interventions is shown to be the most helpful long-term for learning. Viewing videotapes of self-modeling should be shown over a spaced out period of time of approximately 6 weeks.
Many practitioners believe that there is evidence indicating that antidepressants may be helpful in treating children & adults with selective mutism & even that medicine is essential to effective treatment. The medication is used to decrease anxiety levels to speed the process of therapy. Use of medication may end after nine to twelve months, once the person has learned skills to cope with anxiety & has become more comfortable in social situations. Medication is more often used for older children, teenagers, & adults whose anxiety has led to depression & other problems.
Medication, when used, should never be considered the entire treatment for a person with selective mutism. While on medication, the person should be in therapy to help one to know how to handle anxiety & prepare for life without medication.
Anti-depressants have been used in addition to self-modeling & mystery motivation in order to aid in the learning process.
Self-esteem is a term in psychology to reflect a person‘s overall evaluation or appraisal of one’s own worth. It is conceptualized as an attitude toward the self & is similar to a judgment of oneself. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, “I am competent”, “I am worthy”) & emotions such as triumph, despair, pride & shame. ‘The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, the positive or negative evaluations of the self, is how we feel about it’.
Self-esteem is a disposition that a person has which represents their judgments of their own worthiness. Self-esteem requires “a self-evaluation process in which individuals compare their description of themselves as they are (Real Self ) with their description of themselves as they would like to become ( Ideal Self) & as they fear becoming ( Dreaded Self)”. Self-esteem depends on living up to one’s ideal’s
Implicit self-esteem refers to a person’s disposition to evaluate themselves positively or negatively in a spontaneous, automatic, or unconscious manner. It contrasts with explicit self-esteem, which entails more conscious & reflective self-evaluation. Both explicit self-esteem & implicit self-esteem are subtypes of self-esteem proper.
Narcissism is a disposition; people may have that represents an excessive love for one’s self. It is characterized by an inflated view of self-worth.
Low self-esteem can result from various factors, including genetic factors, physical appearance or weight, socioeconomic status, or peer pressure or bullying. Low self-esteem occasionally leads to suicidal ideation & behaviour. These can include self-imposed isolation, feelings of rejection, dejection, insignificance, & detachment, & increased dissatisfaction with current social relationships. A lack of social support from peers or family tends to create or exacerbate stress on an individual, which can lead to an inability to adjust to current circumstances
There are two distinct types of individuals that are called loners. The first type includes individuals that prefer solitude & are content to have very limited social interaction. The second type includes individuals that are forced to be isolated because they are rejected by society. This individual typically experiences loneliness. The first type is not lonely even when they are alone. However, these are very broad generalizations & it is not uncommon for loners to experience both of these dimensions at some point—their bliss due to solitude may come at the price of loneliness.
In popular culture, there is a certain romanticism in the idea of the loner since one is seen as special & unique. This can be attributed to the notion that truly great people often lurk in the shadows of societies that espouse superficial standards of existence.
Some loners simply prefer isolation. They may feel they can reflect freely, mature faster, seek knowledge, reach goals more easily, & focus more on tasks. Disconnected from the people around them, they are more likely to make their own decisions & avoid peer pressure. Such loners may refuse to interact with others because of perceived or actual superiority in terms of ethics or intellect, & so relate only to individuals they consider worthy of their time & attention.
Therefore, this type of loner will have very few intimate relationships, within which they may socialize greatly. Such bonds may form slowly, & if a stranger enters the social group, the loner may automatically shell up. Others may isolate themselves out of self-hatred, misanthropy or self-consciousness. Social anxiety is common in their interactions: They believe people are constantly sizing up their attributes, & worry they will be judged negatively. Many can socialize only with people they see constantly. They feel social alienation even though their isolation is self-imposed.
While expressing a desire to be alone, loners do not necessarily reject human contact entirely. An example would be the person who shuns any social interaction with work colleagues beyond what is necessary for fulfilling one’s job description (mainly for practical reasons & to avoid further complicating one’s professional relationships) but who is highly charismatic during parties or social gatherings with people outside work or school, or vice-versa.
Most loners are able to act “normally” in a social setting. However, the strain of being in a situation which is uncomfortable may leave some mentally & emotionally exhausted. They may have to retreat for a significant amount of time before being able to do so again. The typical loner exhibits the personality trait known as introversion more than the average person. They are drawn to solitary activities to the detriment of social ones. This may be due to both innate personality traits as well as life experiences.
An interpersonal relationship is an association between two or more people that may range from association may be based on inference, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships are formed in the context of social, cultural & other influences. The context can vary from family or kinship relations, friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighborhoods, & places of worship. They may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, & are the basis of social groups & society as a whole.
Interpersonal relationships usually involve some level of interdependence. People in a relationship tend to influence each other, share their thoughts & feelings, & engage in activities together. Because of this interdependence, most things that change or impact one member of the relationship will have some level of impact on the other member as well.
Interpersonal relationships are dynamic systems that change continuously during their existence. Like living organisms, relationships have a beginning, a lifespan, & an end. They tend to grow & improve gradually, as people get to know each other & become closer emotionally, or they gradually deteriorate as people drift apart, move on with their lives & form new relationships with others. The natural development of a relationship follows five stages:
Acquaintance – Becoming acquainted depends on previous relationships, physical proximity, first impressions, & a variety of other factors. If two people begin to like each other, continued interactions may lead to the next stage, but acquaintance can continue indefinitely.
Buildup – During this stage, people begin to trust & care about each other. The need for intimacy, compatibility & such filtering agents as common background & goals will influence whether or not interaction continues.
Continuation – This stage follows a mutual commitment to a long-term friendship, romantic relationship, or marriage. It is generally a long, relative stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth & development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship.
Deterioration – Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble. Boredom, resentment, & dissatisfaction may occur, & individuals may communicate less & avoid self-disclosure. Loss of trust & betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. (Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems & reestablish trust.)
Termination – The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by death in the case of a healthy relationship, or by separation.
People can experience loneliness for many reasons & many life events may cause it, like the lack of friendship relations during childhood & adolescence, or the physical absence of meaningful people around a person. At the same time, loneliness may be a symptom of another social or psychological problem, such as chronic depression.
Many people experience loneliness for the first time when they are left alone as infants. It is also a very common, though normally temporary, consequence of a breakup, divorce, or loss of any important long-term relationship. In these cases, it may stem both from the loss of a specific person & from the withdrawal from social circles caused by the event or the associated sadness.
Loneliness may also occur immediately after the birth of a child or following any other socially disruptive event, such as moving from one’s home town into an unfamiliar community leading to homesickness. Loneliness can occur within unstable marriages or other close relationships in a similar nature, in which feelings present may include anger or resentment, or in which the feeling of love cannot be given or received.
Loneliness may represent a dysfunction of communication, & can also result from places with low population densities in which there are comparatively few people to interact with. Loneliness can also be seen as a social phenomenon, capable of spreading like a disease. Learning to cope with changes in life patterns is essential in overcoming loneliness.
This means that emotional loneliness is caused by the lack of a romantic partner, & feels like the separation distress one feels when a romantic partner is missing.
Social loneliness, on the other h&, is the loneliness people experience because of the lack of a wider social network. They do not feel they are members of a community, or that they have friends or allies whom they can rely on in times of distress.
Transient vs. chronic
The other important typology of loneliness focuses on the time perspective. In this respect, loneliness can be viewed as either transient or chronic. It has also been referred to as state & trait loneliness. Transient (state) loneliness is temporary in nature, caused by something in the environment, & is easily relieved. Chronic (trait) loneliness is more permanent, caused by the person, & is not easily relieved.
For example, when a person is sick & cannot socialize with friends would be a case of transient loneliness. Once the person got better it would be easy for them to alleviate their loneliness. A person who feels lonely regardless of if one is at a family gathering, with friends, or alone is experiencing chronic loneliness. It does not matter what goes on in the surrounding environment, the experience of loneliness is always there.
Distinction from solitude
One way of thinking about loneliness is as a discrepancy between one’s desired & achieved levels of social interaction, while solitude is simply the lack of contact with people. Loneliness is therefore a subjective experience; if a person thinks they are lonely, then they are lonely. People can be lonely while in solitude, or in the middle of a crowd. What makes a person lonely is the fact that they want more social interaction than what is currently available.
A person can be in the middle of a party & feel lonely due to not talking to enough people. Conversely, one can be alone & not feel lonely; even though there is no one around that person is not lonely because there is no desire for social interaction. There have also been suggestions that each person has their own sweet spot of social interaction. If a person gets too little or too much social interaction, this could lead to feelings of loneliness or over-stimulation.
Loneliness can also play an important role in the creative process. In some people, temporary or prolonged loneliness can lead to notable artistic & creative expression. This is not to imply that loneliness itself ensures this creativity, rather, it may have an influence on the subject matter of the artist & more likely be present in individuals engaged in creative activities.
Loneliness appears to have intensified in every society in the world as modernization occurs. A certain amount of this loneliness appears to be related to greater migration, smaller household sizes, a larger degree of media consumption (all of which, have positive sides as well in the form of more opportunities, more choice in family size, & better access to information)
Whether a correlation exists between Internet usage & loneliness is a subject of controversy, with some findings showing that Internet users are lonelier & others showing that lonely people who use the Internet to keep in touch with loved ones report less loneliness, but that those trying to make friends online became lonelier. “Internet use was found to decrease loneliness & depression significantly, while perceived social support & self-esteem increased significantly” & that the Internet “has an enabling & empowering role in people’s lives, by increasing their sense of freedom & control, which has a positive impact on well-being or happiness.”
Weighing the other side of the ‘King of Loneliness’….
Chronic loneliness is a serious, life-threatening condition. At least one study has empirically correlated it with an increased risk of cancer, especially for those who hide their loneliness from the outside world, & it is also associated with increased risk of stroke & cardiovascular disease. Loneliness has been linked with depression, & is thus a risk factor for suicide. Loneliness, specifically the inability or unwillingness to live for others, i.e. for friendships or altruistic ideas, as the main reason for what he called egoistic suicide.
There are many different ways used to treat loneliness, social isolation, & clinical depression. The first step that most doctors recommend to patients is therapy. Therapy is a common & effective way of treating loneliness & is often successful. Short term therapy, the most common form for lonely or depressed patients, typically occurs over a period of ten to twenty weeks.
During therapy, emphasis is put on understanding the cause of the problem, reversing the negative thoughts, feelings, & attitudes resulting from the problem, & exploring ways to help the patient feel connected. Some doctors also recommend group therapy as a means to connect with other sufferers & establish a support system. Doctors also frequently prescribe anti-depressants to patients as a stand-alone treatment, or in conjunction with therapy.
It may take several attempts before a suitable anti-depressant medication is found. Some patients may also develop a resistance to a certain type of medication & need to switch periodically. Alternative approaches to treating depression are suggested by many doctors. These treatments may include exercise, dieting, hypnosis, electro-shock therapy, acupuncture, herbs, amongst others. Many patients find that participating in these activities fully or partially alleviates symptoms related to depression.
Another treatment for both loneliness & depression is pet therapy, or animal-assisted therapy, as it is more formally known. Presence of animal companions such as dogs, cats, rabbits, & guinea pigs can ease feelings of depression & loneliness among some sufferers. Beyond the companionship the animal itself provides there may also be increased opportunities for socializing with other pet owners. Nostalgia has also been found to have a restorative effect, counteracting loneliness by increasing perceived social support.
In the bottomline, scrolling & glancing over several typical connotations in a nutshell;
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that stresses “the moral worth of the individual“. Individualists promote the exercise of one’s goals & desires & so value independence & self-reliance while opposing external interference upon one’s own interests by society.
“An individual characteristic; a quirk.” Individualism is thus also associated with artistic & bohemian interests & lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation & experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions & behaviors as so also with humanist philosophical positions & ethics. The individualist does not lend credence to any philosophy that requires the sacrifice of the self-interest of the individual for any higher social causes.
Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, & harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority & hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as “anarchists”, advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical voluntary associations
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual & their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, & ideological systems. Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy but refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict.
Ethical egoism (also called simply egoism) is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which claims that people do only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds merely that it is rational to act in one’s self-interest. Ethical egoism contrasts with ethical altruism, which holds that moral agents have an obligation to help & serve others.
Existentialism, maintained that the individual solely has the responsibilities of giving one’s own life meaning & living that life passionately & sincerely, in spite of many existential obstacles & distractions including despair, absurdity, alienation, & boredom
Confucianism is a study & theory of relationships especially within hierarchies. Social harmony — the central goal of Confucianism — results in part from every individual knowing one’s place in the social order, & playing one’s part well. Particular duties arise from each person’s particular situation in relation to others. The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: as a junior in relation to parents & elders, & as a senior in relation to younger siblings, students, & others. Juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence & seniors have duties of benevolence & concern toward juniors.
The mindfulness theory of relationships shows how closeness in relationships may be enhanced. Minding is the “reciprocal knowing process involving the nonstop, interrelated thoughts, feelings, & behaviors of persons in a relationship.” Five components of “minding” include:
Knowing & being known: seeking to understand the partner
Making relationship-enhancing attributions for behaviors: giving the benefit of the doubt
Accepting & respecting: empathy & social skills
Maintaining reciprocity: active participation in relationship enhancement
Continuity in minding: persisting in mindfulness
People can capitalize on positive events in an interpersonal context to work toward flourishing relationships. People often turn to others to share their good news. Studies show that both the act of telling others about good events & the response of the person with whom the event was shared have personal & interpersonal consequences, including increased positive emotions, subjective well-being, & self-esteem, & relationship benefits including intimacy, commitment, trust, liking, closeness, & stability. Studies show that the act of communicating positive events was associated with increased positive affect & well-being (beyond the impact of the positive event itself).
Avoidant Personality Disorder (or anxious personality disorder) is a person characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation, & avoidance of social interaction.
People with avoidant personality disorder often consider themselves to be socially inept or personally unappealing & avoid social interaction for fear of being ridiculed, humiliated, rejected, or disliked. Avoidant personality disorder is usually first noticed in early adulthood. Childhood emotional neglect & peer group rejection (e.g. bullying) are both associated with an increased risk for the development of AvPD.
Signs & symptoms
People with avoidant personality disorder are preoccupied with their own shortcomings & form relationships with others only if they believe they will not be rejected. Loss & rejection are so painful that these individuals will choose to be lonely rather than risk trying to connect with others.
Apart from the above, other causes of avoidant personality disorder are not clearly defined, & may be influenced by a combination of social, genetic, & psychological factors. The disorder may be related to temperamental factors that are inherited. Specifically, various anxiety disorders in childhood & adolescence have been associated with a temperament characterized by behavioral inhibition, including features of being shy, fearful, & withdrawn in new situations. These inherited characteristics may give an individual a genetic predisposition towards AvPD. Childhood emotional neglect & peer group rejection are both associated with an increased risk for the development of AvPD.
Treatment of avoidant personality disorder can employ various techniques, such as social skills training, cognitive therapy, exposure treatment to gradually increase social contacts, group therapy for practicing social skills, & sometimes drug therapy. A key issue in treatment is gaining & keeping the patient’s trust, since people with avoidant personality disorder will often start to avoid treatment sessions if they distrust the therapist or fear rejection. The primary purpose of both individual therapy & social skills group training is for individuals with avoidant personality disorder to begin challenging their exaggerated negative beliefs about themselves.
Persistent & pervasive feelings of tension & apprehension; belief that one is socially inept, personally unappealing or inferior to others; excessive preoccupation with being criticized or rejected in social situations; unwillingness to become involved with people unless certain of being liked; restrictions in lifestyle because of need to have physical security; avoidance of social or occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact because of fear of criticism, disapproval, or rejection. Associated features may include hypersensitivity to rejection & criticism.
It refers in general to a widespread pattern of inhibition around people, feeling inadequate & being very sensitive to being evaluated negatively, since early adulthood & occurring in a range of situations.
An inferiority complex, often used to mean low self-esteem, is a feeling of intense insecurity, inferiority or of not measuring up. An inferiority complex can be seen in the negative or “useless” reactions to problems in life. These reactions are useless because they do not solve the problem at h&, but only one’s self-esteem by avoiding the task or by placing the blame for the failure outside of the individual’s control.
Although the inferiority complex may be seen as comparing individuals or groups as one being superior to another, it more closely describes how one deals with a fear of failure. An inferiority complex as when “the feeling of inferiority is highly intensified to the degree that the one believes that he will never be able to compensate for his weakness”.
A primary inferiority feeling is said to be rooted in the young child’s original experience of weakness, helplessness & dependency. It can then be intensified by comparisons to siblings, romantic partners, & adults. A secondary inferiority feeling relates to an adult’s experience of being unable to reach a subconscious, fictional final goal of subjective security & success to compensate for the inferiority feelings. The perceived distance from that goal would lead to a negative/depressed feeling that could then prompt the recall of the original inferiority feeling; this composite of inferiority feelings could be experienced as overwhelming.
An inferiority complex occurs when the feelings of inferiority are intensified in the individual through discouragement. The blame may be placed on their race, gender, genetics, sexual orientation, family, social class, mental health, physical appearance, or any character trait that the individual feels is lacking. An individual tends to only display their inferiority complex when faced with a task, or problem in life that they do not feel capable of solving or mastering
Symptoms from complete isolation, called sensory deprivation, often include anxiety, sensory illusions, or even distortions of time & perception. However, this is the case when there is no stimulation of the sensory systems at all, & not only lack of contact with people. Still, long-term solitude is often seen as undesirable, causing loneliness or reclusion resulting from inability to establish relationships. Furthermore, it might even lead to clinical depression. However, for some people, solitude is not depressing. Still others (e.g. monks) regard long-term solitude as a means of spiritual enlightenment.
Enforced loneliness (solitary confinement) has been a punishment method throughout history. It is often considered a form of torture. In contrast, some psychological conditions (such as schizophrenia & schizoid personality disorder) are strongly linked to a tendency to seek solitude.
There are both positive & negative psychological effects of solitude. Much of the time, these effects & the longevity is determined by the amount of time a person spends in isolation. The positive effects can range anywhere from more freedom to increased spirituality, while the negative effects are socially depriving & may trigger the onset of mental illness.
There are many benefits to spending time alone, freedom is considered to be one of the benefits of solitude. The constraints of others will not have any effect on a person who is spending time in solitude, therefore giving the person more of a scope to his actions. With increased freedom, a person’s choices are less likely to be affected by exchanges with others.
A person’s creativity can be sparked when given freedom. Solitude can increase freedom & moreover, freedom from distractions has the potential to spark creativity.
Another proven benefit to time given in solitude is the development of self. When a person spends time in solitude from others, he may experience changes to his self-concept. This can also help a person to form or discover his identity without any outside distractions. Solitude also provides time for contemplation, growth in personal spirituality, & self-examination. In these situations, loneliness can be avoided as long as the person in solitude knows that they have meaningful relations with others.
Too much solitude is not always considered beneficial. Many of the negative effects have been observed in prisoners. Negative effects of solitude may also depend on age. Elementary age school children who experience frequent solitude may react negatively. This is largely because, often, solitude at this age is not something chosen by the child. Solitude in elementary age kids may occur when the kids don’t know how to interact socially with others so they prefer to be alone, causing shyness or social rejection.
While teenagers are more likely to feel lonely or unhappy when not around others, they are also more likely to have a more enjoyable experience with others if they have had time alone first. However, teenagers who frequently spend time alone don’t have as good of a global adjustment as those who balance their time of solitude with their social time
Gist of solitude
Solitude does not necessarily entail feelings of loneliness. For example, in religious contexts, some saints preferred silence & found immense pleasure in their uniformity with God. Buddha attained enlightenment through uses of meditation, deprived of sensory input, bodily necessities, & external desires, including social interaction.
The context of solitude is attainment of pleasure from within, rather than seeking it in the external world. In psychology, introverted individuals may require spending time away from people to recharge. Those who are simply socially apathetic might find it a pleasurable environment in which to occupy oneself with solitary tasks.
P.S. : Well, after a long stretched article; there’s not much to comment on the ‘King of Loneliness’.